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Technologies for Yellow Water Management

            Yellow water or human urine is also a waste of human origin which needs to be taken care of. In an ODF household, urination is generally practiced in a toilet. However, in public places like markets, bus stands, shopping places, public institutions & offices urinals are neither provided or if these exist are not properly constructed or managed. Provision and management of urinals in public places should be a part of village SLWM plan. Urine is also a potential source of organic plant nutrients and the urine from such urinals can either be used in agriculture or it can be contained in leach pits of appropriate design.


Mismanagement of Human Urine


Some Facts about Human Urine :


  • Urine seldom contains any harmful pathogens
  • Urine is a potent source of plant nutrients
    • Nitrogen : 15 to 19 % (on dry weight basis)
    • Phosphorus : 2.5 to 5.0 % (on dry weight basis)
    • Potassium : 3.0 to 4.5 % (on dry weight basis)
  • Fresh Urine does not emit foul odor. However, on stagnation it emits foul odour
  • Bad odor of stagnated urine is due to Ammonia & H2S
  • A single person gives out about 500 lit of urine in a year
  • Urine collected from schools, other institutions & public places can be utilized in agriculture & it can be a very potential commercial activity.

How can Human Urine be managed ?


Human urine can be managed in several simple ways.


1) Urinal attached to a simple soak pit

The final outlet from the urinals can be attached to a simple soak pit. The urine gets soaked in the surrounding soil & there is no foul smell. However, in this type there is no utilization of urine as a plant nutrient.

2) Urinals with a collection system

In this type urine from urinals is collected in a plastic barrel placed in an underground brick-lined pit. The same is collected periodically by a simple hand operated pump & is stored in plastic cans. These cans can be taken to farms & the urine is applied to crops as fertilizer.


Urinals with steep gradient

Collection chamber at the end

Urinals with steep gradient

Collection chamber at the end

3) Urinals with Absorption Pit

Urine can also be absorbed in some dry biomass & organic matter like dung powder & later utilized as fertilizer in the field. Once absorbed it does not emit any foul smell.