Prerequisites Of Any Liquid Waste Management System

Whatever may be the choice of technology there are some prerequisites which need to be fulfilled for effective operation of the liquid waste management system. These are –

1. Stop excessive usage of water- Since waste water generation is dependent on the quantity of fresh water consumed; it is of utmost importance to control excessive usage of water if there is any. This can be achieved by educating and motivating people and also taking penal actions, if necessary.

2. Do not mix animal waste in waste water – at many places it is a practice to wash animals and animal sheds with water and let all the wastewater to the nearby open drain. This not only results in clogging of drains but also increases the load to the waste water treatment system. This should also be stopped by motivation as well as by penalization. ( This norm difficult to implement – Need to develop solution for handling cattle shed waste water )

3. Do not mix black water & grey water – In places where septic tanks are installed it is a general custom to let the effluent from the septic tanks into open drains. This is against the law and also overloads the grey water treatment system. This again needs to be stopped by motivation & penal action. (For alternate method of treating black water please refer the respective section of this book)
Ground reality is that in most of the northern states – People have constructed septic tanks from their own sources and majority of the septic tanks constructed under Non SBM are without soak pits . There is need to develop suitable strategy to handle effluent generated from septic tank and Fecal sludge )

4. Avoid strong chemicals & detergents – If the waste water is to be reused especially in kitchen gardens, it is advisable to limit or not use strong chemicals and detergents. These may have adverse residual effects on plants grown on such water.

5. Don’t use drains as dust bins - Systems such as drains are for waste water and should not be used for disposal of solid waste or for defecation.

--Some Essential Do’s--

1. Improvisation / Preparation of Bathing place & or Washing place – It is essential to have a proper structure for bathing place or washing place-the main origin of waste water in a household- in order to ensure proper flow of waste water into the system. If such a structure does not exist or is damaged it is essential to construct one or repair damaged structure.

2. Incorporate following components at household level

Nhani Trap This is a simple device which prevents entry of mosquitoes into the waste water system as well as preventing odour in the system .

Silt chamber-cum- Grease Trap
Silt chamber is an arrangement to remove solids from the waste water by settling. This is important as it prevents clogging of the system, pipes etc.